centos7.2 安装k8s v1.11.0

2018年8月14日 | 作者 郭旭东 | 2800字 | 阅读大约需要6分钟
归档于 部署安装 | 标签 #容器 #kubernetes

前言

最近由于公司业务发展到了瓶颈,原有的技术架构已经逐渐无法满足业务开发和测试的需求,出现了应用测试环境搭建复杂,有许多套(真的很多很多)应用环境,应用在持续集成/持续交付也遇到了很大的困难,经过讨论研究决定对应用和微服务进行容器化,这就是我首次直面docker和k8s的契机.

Kubernetes 介绍

Kubernetes 是 Google 团队发起的开源项目,它的目标是管理跨多个主机的容器,提供基本的部署,维护以及运用伸缩,主要实现语言为 Go 语言。 Kubernetes的特点:

  • 易学:轻量级,简单,容易理解
  • 便携:支持公有云,私有云,混合云,以及多种云平台
  • 可拓展:模块化,可插拔,支持钩子,可任意组合
  • 自修复:自动重调度,自动重启,自动复制

准备工作

注:以下操作都是在root权限下执行的

  1. 安装docker-ce,这里使用docker-ce-17.09.0.c版本,安装方法见之前的教程
  2. 安装Kubeadm

    #安装 Kubeadm 首先我们要配置好阿里云的国内源,执行如下命令:
    cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
    [kubernetes]
    name=Kubernetes
    baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=0
    EOF
    
    #之后,执行以下命令来重建yum缓存:
    yum -y install epel-releaseyum
    clean all
    yum makecache
    

    接下来需要安装指定版本的Kubeadm(这里要安装指定版本,因为后续依赖的镜像由于有墙无法拉取,这里我们只有指定版本的镜像),注意:这里是安装指定版本的Kubeadm,k8s的版本更新之快完全超出你的想象!

    yum -y install kubelet-1.11.0-0
    yum -y install kubeadm-1.11.0-0
    yum -y install kubectl-1.11.0-0
    yum -y install kubernetes-cni
        
    #执行命令启动Kubeadm服务:
    systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet
    
  3. 配置 Kubeadm 所用到的镜像 这里是重中之重,因为在国内的原因,无法访问到 Google 的镜像库,所以我们需要执行以下脚本来从 Docker Hub 仓库中获取相同的镜像,并且更改 TAG 让其变成与 Google 拉去镜像一致。

    新建一个 Shell 脚本,填入以下代码之后保存

    #docker.sh
    #!/bin/bash
    images=(kube-proxy-amd64:v1.11.0 kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.11.0 kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.11.0 kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.11.0 etcd-amd64:3.2.18 coredns:1.1.3 pause-amd64:3.1 kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3 k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.9 k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.9 k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.9 )
    for imageName in ${images[@]} ; do
    docker pull keveon/$imageName
    docker tag keveon/$imageName k8s.gcr.io/$imageName
    docker rmi keveon/$imageName
    done
    # 个人新加的一句,V 1.11.0 必加
    docker tag da86e6ba6ca1 k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
    

    保存后使用chmod命令赋予脚本执行权限

    chmod -R 777 ./docker.sh
    

    执行脚本拉取镜像

    sh docker.sh
    #这里就开始了漫长的拉取镜像之路
    

    关闭掉swap

    sudo swapoff -a
    #要永久禁掉swap分区,打开如下文件注释掉swap那一行
    # sudo vi /etc/stab
    

    关闭SELinux的

    # 临时禁用selinux
    # 永久关闭 修改/etc/sysconfig/selinux文件设置
    sed -i 's/SELINUX=permissive/SELINUX=disabled/' /etc/sysconfig/selinux
    # 这里按回车,下面是第二条命令
    setenforce 0
    

    关闭防火墙

    systemctl disable firewalld.service && systemctl stop firewalld.service
    

    配置转发参数

    # 配置转发相关参数,否则可能会出错
    cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
    vm.swappiness=0
    EOF
    # 这里按回车,下面是第二条命令
    sysctl --system
    

    这里就完成了k8s集群搭建的准备工作,集群搭建的话以上操作结束后将操作完的系统制作成系统镜像,方便集群搭建

    正式安装

    以下的操作都只在主节点上进行:

    初始化镜像

    kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=v1.11.0 --pod-network-cidr=10.10.0.0/16  #这里填写集群所在网段
    

之后的输出会是这样:

I0712 10:46:30.938979   13461 feature_gate.go:230] feature gates: &{map[]}
[init] using Kubernetes version: v1.11.0
[preflight] running pre-flight checks
I0712 10:46:30.961005   13461 kernel_validator.go:81] Validating kernel version
I0712 10:46:30.961061   13461 kernel_validator.go:96] Validating kernel config
    [WARNING SystemVerification]: docker version is greater than the most recently validated version. Docker version: 18.03.1-ce. Max validated version: 17.03
    [WARNING Hostname]: hostname "g2-apigateway" could not be reached
    [WARNING Hostname]: hostname "g2-apigateway" lookup g2-apigateway on 100.100.2.138:53: no such host
[preflight/images] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight/images] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight/images] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[preflight] Activating the kubelet service
[certificates] Generated ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated apiserver certificate and key.
[certificates] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [g2-apigateway kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 172.16.8.62]
[certificates] Generated apiserver-kubelet-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated sa key and public key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy-ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated etcd/ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated etcd/server certificate and key.
[certificates] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [g2-apigateway localhost] and IPs [127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certificates] Generated etcd/peer certificate and key.
[certificates] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [g2-apigateway localhost] and IPs [172.16.8.62 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certificates] Generated etcd/healthcheck-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated apiserver-etcd-client certificate and key.
[certificates] valid certificates and keys now exist in "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf"
[controlplane] wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-apiserver to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml"
[controlplane] wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-controller-manager to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-controller-manager.yaml"
[controlplane] wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-scheduler to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-scheduler.yaml"
[etcd] Wrote Static Pod manifest for a local etcd instance to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd.yaml"
[init] waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as Static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[init] this might take a minute or longer if the control plane images have to be pulled
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 41.001672 seconds
[uploadconfig] storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.11" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[markmaster] Marking the node g2-apigateway as master by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[markmaster] Marking the node g2-apigateway as master by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[patchnode] Uploading the CRI Socket information "/var/run/dockershim.sock" to the Node API object "g2-apigateway" as an annotation
[bootstraptoken] using token: o337m9.ceq32wg9g2gro7gx
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstraptoken] creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

kubeadm join 10.10.207.253:6443 --token t69z6h.lr2etdbg9mfx5r15 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:90e3a748c0eb4cb7058f3d0ee8870ee5d746214ab0589b5e841fd5d68fec8f00

这里注意最后一行:

kubeadm join 10.10.207.253:6443 --token t69z6h.lr2etdbg9mfx5r15 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:90e3a748c0eb4cb7058f3d0ee8870ee5d746214ab0589b5e841fd5d68fec8f00

证明集群主节点安装成功,这里要记得保存这条命令,以便之后各个节点加入集群

配置kubetl认证信息

export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf
# 如果你想持久化的话,直接执行以下命令【推荐】
echo "export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf" >> ~/.bash_profile

安装flanel网络

mkdir -p /etc/cni/net.d/

cat <<EOF> /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conf
{
"name": "cbr0",
"type": "flannel",
"delegate": {
"isDefaultGateway": true
}
}
EOF

mkdir /usr/share/oci-umount/oci-umount.d -p

mkdir /run/flannel/

cat <<EOF> /run/flannel/subnet.env
FLANNEL_NETWORK=10.244.0.0/16
FLANNEL_SUBNET=10.244.1.0/24
FLANNEL_MTU=1450
FLANNEL_IPMASQ=true
EOF

最后需要新建一个flannel.yml文件:

---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
name: flannel
rules:
- apiGroups:
    - ""
    resources:
    - pods
    verbs:
    - get
- apiGroups:
    - ""
    resources:
    - nodes
    verbs:
    - list
    - watch
- apiGroups:
    - ""
    resources:
    - nodes/status
    verbs:
    - patch
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
name: flannel
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: ClusterRole
name: flannel
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: flannel
namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
name: flannel
namespace: kube-system
---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-cfg
namespace: kube-system
labels:
    tier: node
    app: flannel
data:
cni-conf.json: |
    {
    "name": "cbr0",
    "type": "flannel",
    "delegate": {
        "isDefaultGateway": true
    }
    }
net-conf.json: |
    {
    "Network": "10.10.0.0/16",    #这里换成集群所在的网段
    "Backend": {
        "Type": "vxlan"
    }
    }
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-ds
namespace: kube-system
labels:
    tier: node
    app: flannel
spec:
template:
    metadata:
    labels:
        tier: node
        app: flannel
    spec:
    hostNetwork: true
    nodeSelector:
        beta.kubernetes.io/arch: amd64
    tolerations:
    - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
        operator: Exists
        effect: NoSchedule
    serviceAccountName: flannel
    initContainers:
    - name: install-cni
        image: quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.9.1-amd64
        command:
        - cp
        args:
        - -f
        - /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
        - /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conf
        volumeMounts:
        - name: cni
        mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
        - name: flannel-cfg
        mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
    containers:
    - name: kube-flannel
        image: quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.9.1-amd64
        command: [ "/opt/bin/flanneld", "--ip-masq", "--kube-subnet-mgr" ]
        securityContext:
        privileged: true
        env:
        - name: POD_NAME
        valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
            fieldPath: metadata.name
        - name: POD_NAMESPACE
        valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
            fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        volumeMounts:
        - name: run
        mountPath: /run
        - name: flannel-cfg
        mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
    volumes:
        - name: run
        hostPath:
            path: /run
        - name: cni
        hostPath:
            path: /etc/cni/net.d
        - name: flannel-cfg
        configMap:
            name: kube-flannel-cfg

执行:

kubectl create -f ./flannel.yml

默认情况下,master节点不参与工作负载,但如果希望安装出一个all-in-one的k8s环境,则可以执行以下命令:

让master节点成为一个node节点:

kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-

查看节点信息:

kubectl get nodes

会看到如下的输出:

NAME            STATUS     ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master      Ready      master    18h       v1.11.0

以下是节点配置

在配置好主节点之后,就可以配置集群的其他节点了,这里建议直接安装之前做好准备工作的系统镜像 进入节点机器之后,直接执行之前保存好的命令

kubeadm join 10.10.207.253:6443 --token t69z6h.lr2etdbg9mfx5r15 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:90e3a748c0eb4cb7058f3d0ee8870ee5d746214ab0589b5e841fd5d68fec8f00

执行完后会看到:

[preflight] running pre-flight checks
        [WARNING RequiredIPVSKernelModulesAvailable]: the IPVS proxier will not be used, because the following required kernel modules are not loaded: [ip_vs_wrr ip_vs_sh ip_vs ip_vs_rr] or no builtin kernel ipvs support: map[ip_vs_rr:{} ip_vs_wrr:{} ip_vs_sh:{} nf_conntrack_ipv4:{} ip_vs:{}]
you can solve this problem with following methods:
1. Run 'modprobe -- ' to load missing kernel modules;
2. Provide the missing builtin kernel ipvs support

I0725 09:59:27.929247   10196 kernel_validator.go:81] Validating kernel version
I0725 09:59:27.929356   10196 kernel_validator.go:96] Validating kernel config
[discovery] Trying to connect to API Server "10.10.207.253:6443"
[discovery] Created cluster-info discovery client, requesting info from "https://10.10.207.253:6443"
[discovery] Requesting info from "https://10.10.207.253:6443" again to validate TLS against the pinned public key
[discovery] Cluster info signature and contents are valid and TLS certificate validates against pinned roots, will use API Server "10.10.207.253:6443"
[discovery] Successfully established connection with API Server "10.10.207.253:6443"
[kubelet] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.11" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace
[kubelet] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[preflight] Activating the kubelet service
[tlsbootstrap] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap...
[patchnode] Uploading the CRI Socket information "/var/run/dockershim.sock" to the Node API object "k8s-node1" as an annotation

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to master and a response
was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the master to see this node join the cluster.

这里就表示执行完毕了,可以去主节点执行命令:

kubectl get nodes

可以看到节点已加入集群:

NAME        STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master  Ready     master    20h       v1.11.0
k8s-node1   Ready     <none>    20h       v1.11.0
k8s-node2   Ready     <none>    20h       v1.11.0

这期间可能需要等待一段时间,状态才会全部变为ready

kubernetes-dashboard安装

详见:kubernetes安装dashboard

采坑指南

有时会出现master节点一直处于notready的状态,这里可能是没有启动flannel,只需要按照上面的教程配置好flannel,然后执行:

kubectl create -f ./flannel.yml

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小助手毛线

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